Every man deserves a better answer about his prostate cancer

Prostate cancer

After a prostate cancer diagnosis, choosing an appropriate treatment path can be incredibly stressful for you and your loved ones. Myriad’s genetic tests improve your outcomes by providing answers specific to your prostate cancer, allowing you and your doctor to make truly informed treatment decisions.  

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Myriad Oncology's Tests for Prostate Cancer and What Answers They Provide:

tumor testing: to determine what treatment path may be right for you

Prolaris prostate cancer testing

Prolaris® gives you the complete picture on how aggressive your prostate cancer is and how aggressively you should be treating it.

hereditary cancer testing

myRisk genetic testing

Myriad myRisk® is a gene panel that helps identify your options for treatment, your risk of additional cancers, and if any close family members may be at an elevated risk of developing cancer.

hereditary cancer risk associated with prostate cancer

Up to 1 in 6 cases of prostate cancer are hereditary in nature.1 By knowing your genetic risk factors, your doctor can better diagnose and treat your prostate cancer.

If your cancer was caused by a mutation, your children, siblings, and parents have a 50% chance of having that same mutation. Genetic testing helps identify these mutations, and it has been found that individuals with an identified hereditary cancer risk are more likely to develop cancers, such as breast, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer, than the general public.2

To see if genetic testing will benefit you, take The Hereditary Cancer Quiz. It is time to take control of your health.

What is Prostate Cancer?3

Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate gland. The prostate is a small, walnut-sized gland in the male reproductive system located under the bladder and in front of the rectum. The prostate surrounds the urethra, which carries sperm and urine out of the body through the penis. Because of this, a common sign of issues with the prostate is trouble urinating. 

Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer among men in the US.(3) The risk for prostate cancer increases with age, and it’s rarely found in men younger than 40.(3) The two most common types of prostate cancer are carcinomas and sarcomas, with adenocarcinoma being the most common.(3)

Men are at a higher risk if other men in their family have also been diagnosed with prostate cancer. Consult your healthcare professional if you have any concerns or if you feel a prostate exam is necessary as you get older.

Prostate Cancer Signs and Symptoms3

While early prostate cancer usually has no symptoms, health professionals often recommended regular screenings. When prostate cancer becomes more advanced, some symptoms may appear.

Common signs and symptoms of prostate cancer:

  • Problems urinating, including a weak stream, or the need to urinate more often
  • Blood in the urine or semen
  • Trouble getting an erection
  • Pain in the hips, back, chest, or other areas
  • Weakness or numbness in the legs or feet
  • Loss of bladder or bowel control

Prostate Cancer Diagnosis and Staging

Prostate Cancer Screening3:

Prostate cancer is often found early through regular screenings. There are two main ways to screen for prostate cancer. The first type of screening is a blood test that looks for prostate-specific antigen levels, called a PSA test. The next screening is a DRE or Digital Rectal Exam. If either test result suggests that prostate cancer may be present, your healthcare provider may decide to perform a biopsy.

Once a diagnosis has been confirmed, your healthcare professional will determine if it has spread in a process called staging. Staging is a way to identify where cancer is located, how much it has grown, and where it has spread. In the case of prostate cancer, a Gleason score will be used.

Gleason Score3:

The Gleason system, which has been in use for many years, assigns two grades based on how much the cancer looks like normal prostate tissue.

  • If the cancer looks a lot like normal prostate tissue, a grade of 1 is assigned.
  • If the cancer looks very abnormal, it is given a grade of 5.
  • Grades 2 through 4 have features in between these extremes.

The most common pattern of the cancer is given a grade between 1-5, then the second most common pattern is given a grade. These two grades are added together to create an overall Gleason Score.

PSA level and Gleason Score will then be used with other clinical factors to stage the cancer.

Prostate Cancer Treatment Options3

There are several ways to treat prostate cancer. Different stages may require different treatments. The most common treatment plans consist of active surveillance, surgery, and radiation.

Active Surveillance

If your cancer is found to be low-risk, you may be appropriate for active surveillance. Active surveillance is actively monitoring your cancer with regular testing.

Surgery

The most common form of surgery is radical prostatectomy, which involves removing the prostate and some surrounding tissue.

Radiation Therapy

This treatment uses high-energy waves to kill cancer cells. It is administered much like a regular x-ray.

Talk with your doctor about all the risks, side effects, and benefits of each treatment.

What is Prostate Cancer?3

Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate gland. The prostate is a small, walnut-sized gland in the male reproductive system located under the bladder and in front of the rectum. The prostate surrounds the urethra, which carries sperm and urine out of the body through the penis. Because of this, a common sign of issues with the prostate is trouble urinating.

Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer among men in the US.(3) The risk for prostate cancer increases with age, and it’s rarely found in men younger than 40.(3) The two most common types of prostate cancer are carcinomas and sarcomas, with adenocarcinoma being the most common.(3)

Men are at a higher risk if other men in their family have also been diagnosed with prostate cancer. Consult your healthcare professional if you have any concerns or if you feel a prostate exam is necessary as you get older.

Prostate Cancer Signs and Symptoms3

While early prostate cancer usually has no symptoms, health professionals often recommended regular screenings. When prostate cancer becomes more advanced, some symptoms may appear.

Common signs and symptoms of prostate cancer:

  • Problems urinating, including a weak stream, or the need to urinate more often
  • Blood in the urine or semen
  • Trouble getting an erection
  • Pain in the hips, back, chest, or other areas
  • Weakness or numbness in the legs or feet
  • Loss of bladder or bowel control

Prostate Cancer Diagnosis and Staging

Prostate Cancer Screening3:

Prostate cancer is often found early through regular screenings. There are two main ways to screen for prostate cancer. The first type of screening is a blood test that looks for prostate-specific antigen levels, called a PSA test. The next screening is a DRE or Digital Rectal Exam. If either test result suggests that prostate cancer may be present, your healthcare provider may decide to perform a biopsy.

Once a diagnosis has been confirmed, your healthcare professional will determine if it has spread in a process called staging. Staging is a way to identify where cancer is located, how much it has grown, and where it has spread. In the case of prostate cancer, a Gleason score will be used.

Gleason Score3:

The Gleason system, which has been in use for many years, assigns two grades based on how much the cancer looks like normal prostate tissue.

  • If the cancer looks a lot like normal prostate tissue, a grade of 1 is assigned.
  • If the cancer looks very abnormal, it is given a grade of 5.
  • Grades 2 through 4 have features in between these extremes.

The most common pattern of the cancer is given a grade between 1-5, then the second most common pattern is given a grade. These two grades are added together to create an overall Gleason Score.

PSA level and Gleason Score will then be used with other clinical factors to stage the cancer.

Prostate Cancer Treatment Options3

There are several ways to treat prostate cancer. Different stages may require different treatments. The most common treatment plans consist of active surveillance, surgery, and radiation.

Active Surveillance

If your cancer is found to be low-risk, you may be appropriate for active surveillance. Active surveillance is actively monitoring your cancer with regular testing.

Surgery

The most common form of surgery is radical prostatectomy, which involves removing the prostate and some surrounding tissue.

Radiation Therapy

This treatment uses high-energy waves to kill cancer cells. It is administered much like a regular x-ray.

Talk with your doctor about all the risks, side effects, and benefits of each treatment.

References
  1. Prevalence of Germline Variants in Prostate Cancer and Implications for Current Genetic Testing Guidelines. Nicolosi et al. JAMA Oncol 2019.

  2. Ford D, et al. Risks of cancer in BRCA1-mutation carriers. Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. Lancet. 1994; 343(8899):692-5.

  3. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2020. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2020.

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